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Wireless sensor networks comprise typically dense deployments of large networks of small wireless capable sensor devices. In such networks, multicast is a fundamental routing service for efficient data dissemination required for activities such as code updates, task assignment and targeted queries. In particular, efficient multicast for sensor networks is critical due to the limited energy availability in such networks. Multicast protocols that exploit location information available from GPS or localization algorithms are more efficient and robust than other stateful protocols as they avoid the difficulty of maintaining distributed state (multicast tree).
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