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In most studies of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes and sinks are typically stationary. However, mobile sinks are required in various applications of real-life environments, and delivering sensed data to mobile sinks using ordinary routing protocols is very inefficient. Multicasting is an important process in the minimization of the number of transmissions in WSNs. Since sensor nodes have limited resources, many studies have focused on how to send data to specific receivers efficiently. This paper presents a grid-based Hierarchical Multicast (HM) routing protocol for WSNs with mobile sinks. Location Servers (LSs) are adopted to manage the information about the locations of receivers and then a multicast tree is constructed distributively to reduce the update cost and energy consumed by sink mobility.
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