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Fiber Raman Amplifiers (FRAs) are attractive for Ultra Wide Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (UW-DWDM) transmission systems due to their advantages of broad amplification bandwidth and flexible central wavelength. With recent developments of optical pump sources with high power near 1.4 ?m wavelength and highly nonlinear fiber having a peak effective Raman gain coefficient more than ten times that of conventional single mode fiber, Distributed FRAs (DFRAs) are emerging as a practical optical amplifier technology, especially for opening new wavelength windows such as the short and ultra long wavelength bands.
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