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The communication between a multiple-antenna transmitter and multiple receivers (users) with either a single or multiple-antenna each can be significantly enhanced by providing the Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) of the users, as this allows for scheduling, beamforming and multiuser multiplexing gains. The traditional view on how to enable CSIT has been as follows so far: in Time-Division Duplexed (TDD) systems, UpLink (UL) and DownLink (DL) channel reciprocity allows for the use of a training sequence in any given uplink slot, which is exploited to obtain an uplink channel estimate.
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