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The IEEE 802.11p Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) protocol providing for vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle radio communication is currently under standardization. The authors provide an NS-2 simulation study of the proposed IEEE 802.11p MAC protocol focusing on vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. They show that the specified MAC parameters for this protocol can lead to undesired throughput performance because the back-off window sizes are not adaptive to dynamics in the numbers of vehicles attempting to communicate. They propose two solutions to this problem. One is a centralized approach where exact information about the number of concurrent transmitting vehicles is used to calculate the optimal window size, and the other is a distributed approach in which vehicles use local observations to adapt the window size.
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