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Automatic image annotation is a promising solution to narrow the semantic gap between low-level content and high-level semantic concept, which has been an active research area in the fields of image retrieval, pattern recognition, and machine learning. However, even the most dedicated annotation algorithms are often unsatisfactory. Image annotation refinement has attracted much more attention recently. In this paper, a novel refinement algorithm using dynamic voting based on mutual information is proposed. Unlike the traditional refinement algorithm, the proposed algorithm adopts dynamic weighted voting to measure the dependence between the candidate annotations, which not only permits that the annotations with higher probabilities deny the annotations with lower probabilities, but also permits that the annotations with lower probabilities deny the annotations with higher probabilities.
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