Date Added: May 2012
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), energy is a very precious resource for sensor nodes and communication overhead is to be minimized. So energy is an extremely critical resource for this type of battery-powered based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), and thus making energy-efficient smart protocol design is a key challenging problem. Some of the few existing energy-efficient routing protocols schemes always forward the packets through the minimum energy based optimal route to the sink to minimize energy consumption. It causes an unbalanced distribution of residual energy between sensor nodes, which leads to network partition.