Improved Related-Key Boomerang Distinguishing Attack of Threefish-256
In cryptology, hash functions are designed to protect data integrity by producing a fixed-length digest from an arbitrary-length message. Based on Wang et al.'s breakthrough in hash cryptanalysis, the widely-used hash functions (MD5, SHA-1, etc.,) have been seriously attacked. If SHA-256 and SHA-512 were to be broken, the industry does not have any generally-accepted hash functions. As a response to this undesirable consequence, a public competition was hold by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to collect the new designs for a secure and applicable hash function. After two-round competitions, five algorithms has been selected as the final round candidates.