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In this paper, the authors analyze Ring Oscillator (RO) based Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) on FPGAs. They show that the systematic process variation adversely affects the ability of the RO-PUF to generate unique chip-signatures, and propose a compensation method to mitigate it. Moreover, a Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) technique is proposed to reduce noise in PUF responses. The compensation method could improve the uniqueness of the PUF by an amount as high as 18%. The CRO technique could produce nearly 100% error-free PUF outputs over varying environmental conditions without post-processing while consuming minimum area.
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