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In conventional directional sensor networks, coverage control for each sensor is based on a 2D directional sensing model. However, 2D directional sensing model failed to accurately characterize the actual application scene of image/video sensor networks. To remedy this deficiency, the authors propose a 3D directional sensor coverage-control model with tunable orientations. Besides, a novel criterion for judgment is proposed in view of the irrationality that traditional virtual potential field algorithms brought about on the criterion for the generation of virtual force. Furthermore, cross-set test is used to determine whether the sensory region has any overlap and coverage impact factor is introduced to reduce profitless rotation from coverage optimization, thereby the energy cost of nodes was restrained and the performance of the algorithm was improved.
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