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Consider a Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) where the mobile nodes act as relays to form multi-hop routes connecting origin-destination node pairs that are out of radio transmission range with respect to each other. If the nodes do not to belong the same authority, then a protocol must be deployed so that the nodes are given an incentive to spend their resources in forwarding packets that originate at other nodes. This can be done by introducing a credit balance for each node, where the nodes use credits to pay for the costs of sending their own traffic, and earn credits by forwarding traffic from other nodes.
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