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In this paper, the authors' aim is to devise energy efficient strategies for single and multiuser Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna systems with individual users' Effective Capacity (EC) constraints. The use of EC provides a metric to quantify the maximum achievable rate under a certain delay constraint and in particular, they formulate the problem as a cross-layer resource allocation problem that connects the link-layer parameters such as delay and source rate with the physical-layer parameters such as fading statistics and power control. The object is to minimize the transmission energy of the MIMO systems while meeting the EC constraints, with the aid of the channel statistics.
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