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Location-based applications have become increasingly popular on smartphones over the past years. The active use of these applications can however cause device battery drain owing to their powerintensive location-sensing operations. This paper presents an adaptive location-sensing framework that significantly improves the energy efficiency of smartphones running location-based applications. The underlying design principles of the proposed framework involve substitution, suppression, piggybacking, and adaptation of applications' location-sensing requests to conserve energy. The authors implement these design principles on Android-based smartphones as a middleware.
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