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Network Coordinate (NC) systems provide a lightweight and useful way for scalable Internet distance prediction. In an NC system, a set of coordinates is assigned to each host, based on which the distance (a.k.a., end-to-end round-trip time) between any two hosts can be calculated with a pre-defined distance function. For an N-host network, the NC system is able to predict the distances of all the N ? N host pairs with only O(N) measurement overhead. So far, NC systems serve as critical components in many large-scale Peer-to-Peer applications, e.g., application layer multicast and anycast, server selection, multi-player online games, Azureus BitTorrent, PeerWise Overlay, and compact routing.
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