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Many new routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks to maximize throughput, minimize delay or improve other QoS metrics in order to solve the problems of resource-constrained sensor nodes in large networks. However, many of them are based on flooding or its variants. Many routing messages are propagated unnecessarily and may cause different interference characteristics during route discovery phase and in the actual application data transmission phase. As a result, incorrect routes may be selected. Epidemic algorithms have been used to limit flooding in the field of wireless sensor networks. Directed diffusion has been commonly used in wireless sensor networks because it is designed to improve energy efficiency and scalability.
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