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Quantum Cryptography or Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) solves the key distribution problem by allowing the exchange of a cryptographic key between two remote parties with absolute security, guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics. Extensive studies have been undertaken on QKD since it was noted that quantum computers could break public key cryptosystems based on number theory. Actually, the progress of research in this field allows the implementation of QKD outside of laboratories. Efforts are made to exploit this technology in the existing communication networks and to improve the performance and reliability of the implemented technologies. Some research is in progress for the integration of QKD with the protocols in different layers of OSI model.
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