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Incomplete information has been studied in-depth in relational databases and knowledge representation. It is also an important issue in Semantic Web frameworks such as RDF, description logics, and OWL 2 especially given that all these systems rely on the Open World Assumption (OWA). Making the OWA means that the authors cannot capture negative information implicitly, i.e., if a formula is not entailed by their knowledge base, they cannot assume its negation as in the Closed World Assumption (CWA).
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