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As early as 2000, development partners embarked on a decade-long search for "Innovative" or alternative sources of Official Development Assistance (ODA) to help finance achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In response, sovereign and private donors championed an array of initiatives: global solidarity levies proposed by France, frontloading future aid commitments by the United Kingdom, and results-based financing by various actors, including private foundations. Development banks also started issuing new types of bonds that link resource mobilization and development objectives, for example, debt offerings for sustainable investments with climate change-related themes.
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