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This paper presents a novel empirical approach to identify financing constraints for innovation based on the idea of an ideal test as suggested by Hall (2008). Firms were offered a hypothetical payment and were asked to choose between alternatives of use. If they choose additional innovation projects they must have had some unexploited investment opportunities that were not profitable using more costly external finance. That is, these firms have been financially constrained. The authors attribute constraints for innovation not only to lacking financing, but also to firms' innovative capability.
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