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This paper empirically investigates how the quality of trade facilitation (both on-the-border and behind-the-border factors) in LandLocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) and in their transit countries impacts LLDC trade. It uses an augmented gravity model incorporating trade facilitation variables. Two sets of gravity models are estimated, one to explain LLDC exports and the other to explain LLDC imports. The main contribution of this paper is the consideration of trade facilitation environment in both LLDCs and transit countries.
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