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Checkpointing is one of the commonly used techniques to provide fault tolerance in distributed systems so that the system can operate even if one or more components have failed. However, mobile computing systems are constrained by low bandwidth, mobility, lack of stable storage, frequent disconnections and limited battery life. Hence, checkpointing protocols which have fewer checkpoints are preferred in mobile environment. Since, MHs are prone to failure, so they have to transfer a large amount of checkpoint data and control information to its local MSS which increases bandwidth overhead.
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