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Communication between institutions, or domains, residing in the Internet requires a route to be created between the routing domains. Each of these domains is controlled by a single administrative authority, and is referred to as an Autonomous System (AS). Control of routes that move the data in the Internet between ASes is problematic. If an AS requires certain route characteristics beyond the selection of the first hop, the AS must pay for some type of special service from its Internet Service Provider (ISP). The ISP can provide integrity of the data using end-to-end encryption, but the customer AS still does not have control over the route. In other words, an organization is unable to prevent its data from passing through certain parts of the Internet.
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