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The Federal Communication Commissions (FCC) frequency allocation chart indicates multiple allocations over all the frequency bands under 3 GHz. The intense competition for the use of spectrum at frequencies below 3 GHz creates the conception of spectrum shortage. However, studies by FCC show that the usage of the licensed spectrum is vastly underutilized. This motivates research in cognitive networks for the opportunistic use of the spectrum. A cognitive network usually consists of the primary users who have the legacy priority access to the spectrum and the secondary users who use the spectrum only if communication does not create significant interference to the licensed primary users.
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