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Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the most commonly used intra-domain internet routing protocol. Traffic flow is routed along shortest paths, splitting flow at nodes where several outgoing links are on shortest paths to the destination. The weights of the links, and thereby the shortest path routes, can be changed by the network operator. The weights could be set proportional to their physical distances, but often the main goal is to avoid congestion, i.e., overloading of links, and the standard heuristic recommended by Cisco is to make the weight of a link inversely proportional to its capacity. The authors' starting point was a proposed AT&T WorldNet backbone with demands projected from previous measurements.
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