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Recently, in multi-antenna wireless systems, the use of Artificial Noise (AN) in training and data transmission phases has been respectively proposed to achieve performance discrimination between a Legitimate Receiver (LR) and an Unauthorized Receiver (UR). For data transmission, an AN-aided BeamForming (ANBF) scheme has been proposed where the message is sent towards LR using beamforming while AN is imposed in the null space of LR's channel to disrupt UR's reception. For channel estimation, the so-called Discriminatory Channel Estimation (DCE) scheme has been proposed where a multi-stage training scheme is employed and AN is imposed in the null space of the estimated LR's channel obtained in previous stages to degrade the channel estimation performance of UR.
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