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Energy-constrained wireless sensor networks are duty-cycled, relaying on multi-hop forwarding to collect data packets. A forwarding scheme generally involves three design elements: media access, link estimation, and routing strategy. Most existing studies, however, focus only on a subset of those three. Disregarding the low duty cycle nature of media access often leads to overestimate of link quality. Neglecting the characteristic of bursty loss over wireless links inevitably consumes much more energy than necessary and underutilizes wireless channels.
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