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Land vehicle navigation is currently dominated by Global Positioning System (GPS). However, stand-alone GPS suffers from a number of limitations in terms of absolute accuracy, shadowing and multipath effects, so significant efforts have been made to improve stand-alone GPS performance by integrating additional sensors. Inertial sensors are the first choice because of their autonomous and environment-independent nature. However, the high and medium quality Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) are limited by their significant size and high cost, which is not suitable for general land navigation application. The advent of MEMS inertial sensors provides a promising solution to this problem. Advances in MEMS technology has made it possible to produce single chip inertial sensors that are small, cheap and reliable.
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