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In this paper, the authors propose a novel distributed localization scheme LDB, a 3D localization scheme with directional beacons for UnderWater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UWA-SNs). LDB localizes sensor nodes using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) as a mobile beacon sender. Mounted with a directional transceiver which creates conical shaped directional acoustic beam, the AUV patrols over the 3D deployment volume with predefined trajectory sending beacons with constant interval towards the sensor nodes. By listening two or more beacons sent from the AUV, the nodes can localize themselves silently.
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