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One of the fundamental requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is to prolong the lifetime of sensor nodes by minimizing the energy consumption. The information about the energy status of sensor nodes can be used to notify the base station about energy depletion in any part of the network. An energy map of WSN can be constructed with available remaining energy at sensor nodes. The energy map can increase the lifetime of sensor networks by adaptive clustering, energy centric routing, data aggregation, and so forth. In this paper, the authors describe use of energy map techniques for WSNs and summarize the applications in routing, aggregation, clustering, data dissemination, and so forth. The authors also present an energy map construction algorithm that is based on prediction.
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