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The hierarchical macro/femto cell based BWA networks are observed to be quite promising for mobile operators as it improves their network coverage and capacity at the outskirt of the macro cell. However, this new technology introduces increased number of macro/femto handoff and wastage of electrical energy which in turn may affect the system performance. Users moving with high velocity or undergoing real-time transmission suffers degraded performance due to huge number of unnecessary macro/femto handoff. On the other hand, huge amount of electrical energy is wasted when a femto BS is active in the network but remains unutilized due to low network load.
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