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Security issues in complex systems such as power grid, communication network, Internet, among others have attracted wide attention from academic, government and industry. In this paper, the authors investigate the vulnerabilities of power grid under a topology-based network model in the context of cascading failures caused by physical attacks against substations and transmission lines. In particular, they develop attack strategies from the attackers' points of view, aiming to cause severe damage to the network efficiency, as a way to revealing the vulnerability of the system. They propose a new and useful metric, Load Distribution Vector (LDV), to describe the properties of nodes and links.
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