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As the field of sensor networks matures, research in this area is focusing not only on fixed networks, but also on mobile sensor networks. For many reasons, both technical and logistical, such networks will often be very sparse for all or part of their operation, sometimes functioning more as Disruption-Tolerant Networks (DTNs). While much work has been done on localization methods for densely populated fixed networks, most of these methods are inefficient or ineffective for sparse mobile networks, where connections can be infrequent. While some mobile networks rely on fixed location beacons or per-node, onboard GPS, these methods are not always possible due to cost, power and other constraints.
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