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Large-scale data breaches exposing sensitive personal information are becoming commonplace. For numerous reasons, conventional personal (identification) information leaks from databases that store online and/or on-site user transaction data. Collected ID numbers and supporting personal information enable malicious parties to commit large-scale identity fraud. Gates and Slonim (NSPW 2003) proposed the owner-controlled information paradigm to address privacy violations of personal information where users are expected to maintain all their information using a personal device. Rubin and Wright (FC 2001), Molloy et al. (FC 2007), and others explored the use of one-time numbers to address credit card fraud (mostly for online use). However, several other types of ID number are at least as sensitive as credit card numbers.
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