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Directional antennas reduce the beamwidth angle to diffuse the radio transmission to one direction and thus useless energy than omnidirectional antennas. Combined with the idea of reducing the transmission power, these devices can be used for the minimal energy broadcasting problem. The problem is to minimize the total energy consumption but still enable a message originated from a source node to reach all other nodes in an ad-hoc wireless network. The authors assume that directional antennas are able to emit with a small angle beamwidth. Existing solutions are globalized that is based on the assumption that each node knows the global network information (including distances between any two neighboring nodes in the network and the geographic position of itself and each neighbor).
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