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The open nature of wireless communications allows for the signals to be received by all users within the communication range. Thus, wireless communication is vulnerable to eavesdropping. This problem was first studied by Wyner, who proposed a wiretap channel model. In this model, a single source-destination communication link is eavesdropped by a wiretapper. The secrecy level is measured by the equivocation rate. Wyner showed that secure communication is possible without sharing a secret key if the eavesdropper's channel is a degraded version of the main chain. Later, Wyner's result was extended to the Gaussian channel and recently to fading channels.
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