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The Link Quality Indicator (LQI) is defined in the 802.15.4 standard, but its context of use is not specified in this standard. Some works on the LQI, few of which are field experiments, have shown that the LQI decreases as the distance increases. In WSN, it is not often desirable to use the GPS technology. Indeed, the use of GPS is expensive and may reduce the overall network performance. Moreover, indoor reception of the GPS signal is not possible. However, in cluster formation, it is quite important to sufficiently outspread the clusterheads (or caryommes) in order to improve the network efficiency.
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