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For parallel applications running on high-end computing systems, which processes of an application get launched on which processing cores is typically determined at application launch time without any information about the application characteristics. As high-end computing systems continue to grow in scale, however, this approach is becoming increasingly infeasible for achieving the best performance. For example, for systems such as IBM Blue Gene and Cray XT that rely on flat 3D torus networks, process communication often involves network sharing, even for highly scalable applications. This causes the overall application performance to depend heavily on how processes are mapped on the network.
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