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A Gaussian pulse has inter-symbol-interference, which degrades Signal to Interference ratio (SIR). In asynchronous CDMA system, however, Markov codes with negative correlation recover the SIR of Gaussian pulses. The improvement over i.i.d. codes is 2.3dB and Gaussian pulse achieves almost same SIR and bandwidth as a Root Raised Cosine (RRC) pulse. The filter length of Gaussian pulse is only a quarter of the RRC one. One of the significant findings in chaos-based SpreadSpectrum (SS) communication is that spreading codes generated from a Markov chain outperform the conventional Linear-Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) sequences in asynchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems.
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