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The design of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has been conventionally tackled by assuming battery-powered devices and by adopting the network lifetime as the main performance criterion. While WSNs operated by Energy-Harvesting (EH) devices are not limited by network lifetime, they pose new design challenges due to the uncertain amount of harvestable energy. Novel design criteria are thus required to capture the trade-offs between the potentially infinite network lifetime and the uncertain energy availability. This paper addresses the analysis and design of WSNs with EH devices by focusing on conventional MAC protocols, namely TDMA, Framed-ALOHA (FA) and Dynamic-FA (DFA), and by accounting for the performance trade-offs and design issues arising due to EH.
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