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Modern multi-core processors with an on-chip memory controller form the base for NUMA (non-uniform memory architecture) multiprocessors. Each processor accesses part of the physical memory directly and has access to the other parts via the memory controller of other processors. These other processors are reached via the cross-processor interconnect. As a consequence a processor's memory controller must satisfy two kinds of requests: those that are generated by the local cores and those that arrive via the interconnect from other processors. On the other hand, a core (respectively the core's cache) can obtain data from multiple sources: data can be supplied by the local memory controller or by a remote memory controller on another processor.
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