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A variety of smart antennas, from those with remote controlled boresight to beam-steering arrays along with beamforming MIMO as well as active antenna array antenna configurations has been reviewed in great depth. Their installation and operational characteristics have been detailed and several deployment and upgrade strategies have been discussed. General conclusions about how best to upgrade a network are not easily made because every operator has a unique set of constraints such as what frequencies are available, what air interfaces preexist and what network, antenna and user equipment has previously been deployed.
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