Mitigating Packet Dropping Problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Proposals and Challenges
In Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), nodes usually cooperate and forward each other's packets in order to enable out of range communication. However, in hostile environments, some nodes may deny to do so, either for saving their own resources or for intentionally disrupting regular communications. This type of misbehavior is generally referred to as packet dropping attack or black hole attack, which is considered as one of the most destructive attacks that leads to the network collapse. The special network characteristics, such as limited battery power and mobility, make the prevention techniques based on cryptographic primitives ineffective to cope with such attack.