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Transmission using excess power not only shortens the lifetime of sensor nodes, but also introduces interference. Packets should ideally be transmitted with moderate power. This paper proposes a multi-level power adjustment (MLPA) mechanism for a wireless sensor network to prolong the lifetime of individual nodes and the overall network. In this paper, the authors constructed an analytical model of the MLPA mechanism with m distinct power levels (m-LPA). For m-LPA, the closed-form expression of the optimal power setting was determined and the mean transmission power was minimized to one-third of the original fixed transmission power. The authors found that the average power consumption of the authors' proposed mechanism is 33.93% higher than that of fixed-transmission power.
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