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Jamming attacks have been studied as wireless security threats disrupting reliable RF communication in a wireless network. Existing countermeasures often make use of spread-spectrum techniques such as Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. Communication parties rely on a pre-shared common key (hopping sequence or spread code) which is unknown to the jammer, thus making the system robust against jamming attacks. This, however, raises another issue: namely establishing the initial secure key pairing under jamming attacks. This demands another secure communication channel and this introduces circular dependency.
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