Mobile Commerce Regulatory Frameworks Under Digital Convergence

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Mobile Commerce can be seen as a special case of E-commerce, conducted using portable wireless terminals. The terminal base ranges from laptops to smallest mobile phones and further wireless gadgets. The wireless terminal base uses a certain wireless spectrum portion that is regionally regulated by authorities and the ways of usage standardized by industry consortia (e.g. 3G Standards) or government. The end-to-end protocols are regulated by de facto standardization bodies (TCP/IP by IETF). The higher layer protocols are standardized by industry consortia but not by authorities. The digital contents and services that are the actual object of trading in M-commerce are again regulated by regionally valid legislation, including E-commerce legislation, privacy protection, and regulations concerning harmful and criminal contents.