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While operators have to upgrade the capacity of their networks, they have committed themselves to reduce their CO2 emissions, partly by reducing their energy consumption. This paper investigates the challenges faced by operators and quantifies, through a number of case studies, the impact of specific solutions and how the energy consumption trend can be expected to develop over the next decade. With different options for upgrading capacity, studies show that a hybrid macro-pico upgrade is more energy-efficient than a macro or pico only solution. The study is extended further by quantifying the possible savings by adopting an energy-efficient capacity evolution together with an equipment replacement and site upgrade strategy.
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