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In linear piezoelectricity, the equations of linear elasticity are coupled to the charge equation of electrostatics by means of the piezoelectric constants. However, the electric variables are not purely static, but only quasistatic, because of the coupling to the dynamic mechanical equations. The aim is to obtain an analytical model in order to study the displacement of the free end of the stack and the system dynamics. To improve the efficiency of the transconductance amplifier employed, a switching bidirectional converter has been developed to correctly control the tip displacement of the stack and to recover the energy stored in the actuator during the discharge phase; this solution minimizes the required PCB area and reduces the input power.
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