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LTE is currently considered by many wireless operators as their next generation technology. During a transition phase, LTE will be deployed as an overlay on an existing wireless technology, which acts as an underlay. It is expected that initial LTE deployment will be patchy with coverage holes. In this paper, the authors model and analyze the impact of dual-technology deployment on signaling load at critical network elements. They consider a case, known as without ISR, where a location update is executed when a UE moves between an overlay and an underlay and another case, known as with ISR, where a location update is made only when a new tracking area or routing area is encountered by a UE.
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