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Advanced multi-antenna techniques, such as MultiUser MIMO (MU-MIMO) and cooperative transmission are known to increase system performance in cellular deployments. However, it is well known that cellular systems suffer from multi-cell interference. Antenna downtilt is a common method used to adjust interference conditions especially in urban scenarios with a high base station density. Performance evaluation is generally based on multi-cell simulations using 2D models, neglecting the elevation component of the base station antennas. In this paper, the authors concentrate on 3D antenna models based on real world antennas with high directivity, their approximation and impact on cellular systems.
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