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The turbo principle was conceived over a decade ago by Berrou et al. The authors proposed an encoder consisting of the parallel concatenation of two Recursive Systematic Convolutional (RSC) encoders separated by a pseudo-random interleaver, and the corresponding turbo decoder consisting of two component soft-input soft-output decoders that exchange soft information in an iterative manner. Turbo codes show an impressive performance, closely approaching the Shannon limit. Turbo or iterative techniques have since been proposed for a large number of communication scenarios including multi-user processing, space-time processing and the processing of Bit Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM).
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